The carat is a unit of mass used for gems. The word derives from the Greek keration, or fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua, which is a species native to the Mediterranean region ), via Arabic and Italian. In the past, different countries each had their own carat, roughly equivalent to a carob seed; in effect, carob seeds were used as weights on precision scales because of their uniform size. However, in 1907, the metric carat of 200 milligrams was adopted and is now universally used.
There is a non-linear ratio between the weight of a stone to its value. Naturally, larger stones fetch higher prices. There is no way to formulate this ratio mathematically as the market permanently fluctuates. But, as a rule, if a one-carat stone is valued at 100 USD, a two-carat stone of the same quality will be valued at more than twice, or more than 200 USD
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The Gemcal team